Impact of Emerging Technology.

What is Emerging Technology?
New technologies that are currently developing or will be developed over the next five to ten years, and which will substantially alter the business and social environment. These include information technology, wireless data communication, man-machine communication, on-demand printing, bio-technologies, and advanced robotics.

Impacts of a particular emerging technology depends upon which type of technology is introduced, when and where? Broadly categorizing different impacts of emerging technlogies on society ,we can make few assumptions to understand its implications.
Responce of public towards an emerging technology depends considering following aspects:
·         We must take the fact into consideration that in which type of society are we going to introduce our new technology. Introduction of a new invention is always accompanied by deniels .Although having major advantages , the technology or the invention can face lots of criticism if the public is not well aware of it, or they previously may have many or some wrong perceptions regarding it.e.g Use of pigs or other animals to produce diabetis medicine using genetic engineering in areas where people ethically dont like to slaugther or kill animals to extract the precursors or where people are restricted by their religion to not to use animal products, or people may be uneducated and not well aware of the methods of genetic engineering. As a scientist we must take the layman’s approach or thinking in to consideration before we introduce a new technology. Society will accept the emerging technology if it according to their morals, ethics and religion and would change a bit accordingly.
                                       There are certain moral and ethical issues like having Test tube babies and abortions or super kids.Even now many liberal countries still oppose the introduction of such technologies that play with the nature.e.g  the use of GM food (genetically modified food) is banned in Europe although they are ever  heading fast  towards new research and developments.
·         Secondly, it is important to understand the neccessity of a particular technology in a particular area.e.g. introduction of highly equiped cars and vehicles in remote areas where you cannot find road.or introduction of genetically modified food for areas having rich agricultural lands and high rates of cultivation would completely be a waste and peolple would consider it useless to spend their money on things which donot benefit them. People would accept the new technology if it is beneficient for them.
·         Previously and even now ,having new model cars and mobiles and branded handbags just define a status symbol instead of necessity of particular things. Most people would go for new or emerging technology if they can afford it because it would mark them as rich or liberal and many people can go for it if the emerging  technology demand a broadminded society to be implemented.

Effects of emerging technology on society:
Positive aspects:
·         The story of the compass is a compelling one for understanding the extent of the impact of a technological advancement on society. The discovery of the compass in China did not necessarily influence the trade there as much as it did around the Mediterranean shores. Regardless, the compass box of Amalfi incorporated centuries of know-how gathered about the winds of the Mediterranean Sea, and then helped the traders to sail year-round instead of waiting for calmer weather. This technological marvel helped Amalfi to flourish, although briefly.  Venice struck gold with the compass, and became a formidable maritime power for three centuries. This explains how a single minute invention helps build a new direction for betterment of society only depending how , where and when to use.
·         Genetically modified food was introduced to suppliment the ever rising demmand of food for the third world countries where any other .Although after being ethically and religiously denied in some countries GM foods are now gaining attention and changing the mind set of many societies where over coming the demand of hunger is their biggest struggle. Although still emerging this technology is now gaining attention worlwide but it will help society to likely attain and move towards new directions to seek new ways out.

Negative aspects:
Emerging technologies effect people of all ages and genders. All the possessions of a person whether  of a child ,toddler , teenager, adult or an oldman have now transformed to modern looks and mechanisms that define a particular status different from the previous or old ones. Introduction of new technology is always determined towards improving the lifestyle of general public either by facilitating them with new innovations or by overcoming their particular needs.The problems arises when these emerging technologies are handled by evil minds who either work for their benefits or plan to destroy others. Introduction of new technology demads a change in the mind set of public.
·         Emerging technologies  become a neccesity for future applications.e.g societies get dependent on certain technologies or they start being exploited by companies ,where the company owners then introduce such initiatives e.g rise in price ,low quality products which benefit the company only and then they play with the  public like masters of puppets.
·         As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further, even many skilled jobs may be threatened. Technologies such as machine learning may ultimately allow computers to do many knowledge-based jobs that require significant education. This may result in substantial unemployment at all skill levels, stagnant or falling wages for most workers, and increased concentration of income and wealth as the owners of capital capture an ever larger fraction of the economy. This in turn could lead to depressed consumer spending and economic growth as the bulk of the population lacks sufficient discretionary income to purchase the products and services produced by the economy.

·         First of all, we must think what kind of technology are we introducing, either is it is a neccessity or just a sort of new excitement for the public. Introduction of nuclear technology is a big question mark which was introduce to defend a nation or improve  defence abilities of a country for protection from any sort of attacks but nowmany countries  use it to threaten other small and weak countries to impart their strength.
Taking example of internet , you can browse and find any sort of date in fraction of seconds by just opening your laptops , you can stay connected to the rest of the world.but it contains certain matrial which can be used by dirty minds to turn evil. Computers and mobiles were introduced to save our time, but now many people use them to waste their valuable time unknowingly . Quoting Collste: “The uses of computers give rise to many moral problems: Is it morally wrong to copy computer programs? Some would say –it is to steal another‟s property. But –some would object –this protection of property rights will prevent the “have nots” ,i.e. those who lack the economic resources needed to get hold of the programes-and there are many such in today‟s world-to take advantage of the new technology. Which is more important: property rights or social equality?” Is it morally right to gain unauthorized access to information that governments or companies want to hide? Of course not –some would say –these agencies have the right to protect certain important information. But ------others might reply –isn‟t the free flow of scientific and political information without restrictions a necessary condition for an open  and democratic society?

Impact of Nanotechnology on society:
There is no doubt that nanotechnology is a significant “emerging technology” with many potential benefits, along with avoidable, unavoidable and questionable adverse effects. If mankind can master the principles of nanotechnology, and build structures at an atomic scale, they can manipulate matter and genes and control the progress of cells. As a scientist it is my responsibilty to introduce the possible advantages  to layman or public in oder to impart the role of nanotechnlogy which can be briefly summarized as:
Researchers are developing customized nanoparticles the size of molecules that can deliver drugs directly to diseased cells in your body.  When it's perfected, this method should greatly reduce the damage treatment such as chemotherapy does to a patient's healthy cells. Electronics
Nanotechnology holds some answers for how we might increase the capabilities of electronics devices while we reduce their weight and power consumption. 
Nanotechnology is having an impact on several aspects of food science, from how food is grown to how it is packaged. Companies are developing nanomaterials that will make a difference not only in the taste of food, but also in food safety, and the health benefits that food delivers. 
Nanotechnology is being used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells to produce hydrogen ions from fuel such as methanol and to improve the efficiency of membranes used in fuel cells to separate hydrogen ions from other gases such as oxygen.
Solar cells
Companies have developed nanotech solar cells that can be manufactured at significantly lower cost than conventional solar cells.
Companies are currently developing batteries using nanomaterials. One such battery will be a good as new after sitting on the shelf for decades. Another battery  can be recharged significantly faster than conventional batteries. 
Nanotechnology may hold the key to making space-flight more practical. Advancements in nanomaterials make lightweight spacecraft and a cable for the space elevator possible. By significantly reducing the amount of rocket fuel required, these advances could lower the cost of reaching orbit and traveling in space.
Nanotechnology can address the shortage of fossil fuels such as diesel and gasoline by making the production of fuels from low grade raw materials economical, increasing the mileage of engines, and making the production of fuels from normal raw materials more efficient. 
Nanotechnology can improve the performance of catalysts used to transform vapors escaping from cars or industrial plants into harmless gasses. That's because catalysts made from nanoparticles have a greater surface area to interact with the reacting chemicals than catalysts made from larger particles. The larger surface area allows more chemicals to interact with the catalyst simultaneously, which makes the catalyst more effective. 
Nanotechnology is being used to develop solutions to three very different problems in water quality. One challenge is the removal of industrial wastes, such as a cleaning solvent called TCE, from groundwater. Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless. Studies have shown that this method can be used successfully to reach contaminates dispersed in underground ponds and at much lower cost than methods which require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment.
Side by side this emerging technology is accompanied with lot of risks and threat including:
Nanoparticles have been shown to be absorbed in the livers of research animals and even cause brain damage in fish exposed to them after just 48 hours.  If they can be taken up by cells, then they can enter our food chain through bacteria and pose a health threat like mercury in fish, pesticides in vegetables or hormones in meat.  The increasingly-popular carbon nanotube (20x stronger and lighter than steel) looks very much like an asbestos fiber – what happens if they get released into the air?  Being carbon-based, they wouldn’t set off the usual alarms in our bodies, making them difficult to detect.
If nanomaterials really are as strong as diamonds, how decomposable or persistent are they?  Will they litter our environment further or present another disposal problem like nuclear waste or space litter?  In the distant future, will self-replicating nanobots – necessary to create the trillions of nanoassemblers needed to build any kind of product – run amok, spreading as quickly as a virus, in the infamous “gray goo” scenario?
 As products shrink in size, eavesdropping devices too can become invisible to the naked eye and more mobile, making it easier to invade our privacy.  Small enough to plant into our bodies, mind-controlling nanodevices may be able to affect our thoughts by manipulating brain-processes.
Capabilities of terrorists go hand in hand with military advances, so as weapons become more powerful and portable, these devices can also be turned against us.  Nanotech may create new, unimaginable forms of torture – disassembling a person at the molecular level or worse.  Radical groups could let loose nanodevices targeting to kill anyone with a certain skin color or even a specific person.
With all the potential abuses of nanotech, many experts advocate a strong system to regulate and monitor nanotech developments.  But because nanotech laboratories can be small and mobile, surveillance needs to be practically everywhere – devolving a free society into a Big Brother scenario.  Also, what is the impact on the economy?  If nations can make anything they want, will they lose all incentive to trade?  What about morality – should we be playing with god-like powers?

                        Considering all these factors ,we can conclude that every emerging technology has its own pros and cons. Emerging technologies effect all ages and all genders of society differently. We cannot collectively define the impact of an emerging technology as a whole , but what really matters is how we allow a particular technology to be engaged in our lifes. As a scientist it is my responsibility to impart the positive aspects of nanotechnology to general public but side by side awareing people about the threatening effects is my moral duty.


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